#252  

June 1999




Be Thankful for Dads

by Amy Ridenour

 

Father's Day is not only a day to express our gratitude for all our fathers have done for us, but also a day to reflect on the importance of fathers to society as a whole.

Although a January 1999 poll found that 72 percent of Americans believe that fatherlessness is the most significant family or social problem facing America,1 this is apparently a problem that many don't care enough about to solve.

* Forty percent of the children of divorced parents haven't seen their dads in the past year.2

* Thirty-six percent of children, approximately 24.7 million, don't live with their biological father.3 In 1960, just nine percent of children lived with one parent.4

* The number of live births to unmarried women increased from 224,300 in 1960 to 1,248,000 in 1995,5 while the number of children living with never-married mothers grew from 221,000 in 1960 to 5,862,000 in 1995.6

* A just-released National Fatherhood Initiative analysis found that of the 102 prime time network TV shows in late 1998, only fifteen featured a father as a central character. Of these, the majority portrayed the father as uninvolved, incompetent or both.7

But for the kids who have them, a good dad makes a big difference.

Consider:

* Children with fathers are twice as likely to stay in school.8

* Boys with dad and mom at home are half as likely to be incarcerated, regardless of their parents' income or educational level.9 According to a Men Against Domestic Violence survey, 85 percent of youths in prison come from fatherless homes.10

* Girls 15-19 raised in homes with fathers are significantly less likely to engage in premarital sex,11 and 76 percent of teenage girls surveyed said their fathers are very or somewhat influential over their decisions regarding sex.12

* Girls raised in single mother homes are more likely to give birth while single and are more likely to divorce and remarry. Studies have shown that girls whose fathers depart before their fifth birthday are especially likely to have permissive sexual attitudes and to seek approval from others.13

* Paternal praise is associated with better behavior and achievement in school14 while father absence increases vulnerability and aggressiveness in young children, particularly boys.15

* Young children living without dads married to their moms are five times as likely to be poor and ten times as likely to be extremely poor.16

* Fatherless children are "at a dramatically greater risk" of drug and alcohol abuse, says the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services.17

* Children living in households with fathers are less likely to suffer from emotional disorders and depression.18

* When dads don't live with their kids, the children are 4.3 times more likely to smoke cigarettes when teenagers.19

* A white teenage girl with an advantaged background is five times more likely to be a teen mom if she grows up in a household headed by a single mom instead of with her biological dad and mom.20

* Children with involved dads are less susceptible to peer pressure, are more competent, more self-protective, more self-reliant and more ambitious.21

These benefits to kids come at a cost for dads, but many are willing to make even greater sacrifices. Thirty percent of fathers said they have turned down a promotion or transfer because it would harm the amount of time they would have available for their families.22 In a 1991 survey, 75 percent of men said they would trade rapid career advancement for a chance to have more time with their families.23

It doesn't take a lot of modern sociological data for people to realize that involved dads make an irreplaceable contribution to the lives of their kids.

Back in 1909, Mrs. Sonora Smart Dodd of Spokane, Washington invented Father's Day. Her own father, Henry Jackson Smart, a Civil War veteran, raised six children after his wife died in childbirth. His daughter wanted a special day to honor the sacrifices he made raising six children alone and the sacrifices of all devoted dads. She selected June 19, her father's birthday, as the first Father's Day.

In 1924, President Calvin Coolidge supported a national Father's Day, and in 1956, Father's Day was recognized by a Joint Resolution of Congress. In 1966 President Lyndon Johnson signed a presidential proclamation declaring the third Sunday of June as Father's Day. In 1972, President Richard Nixon made this date permanent.

Should we celebrate Father's Day because involved dads are great for kids? Sure. But we should do it for another reason, too: Because we love them.

 


Footnotes

1 "The Extent of Fatherlessness," National Center for Fathering, Fathering in America Poll, 1999, downloaded from http://www.fathers.com/1999research/extent.html on June 12, 1999.

2 "Why Fathers Count: An Interview with Wade F. Horn," Men's Health, September 1995, p. 48, downloaded from http://www.fatherhood.org/fathers-count.html on June 12, 1999, and Ronald L. Klinger, Ph.D., "Addressing the Fatherlessness Trend," Center for Successful Fathering, Inc., 1996, 1997, downloaded from http://www.fathering.org/news/trend.html on June 12, 1999.

3 "Father Facts (Third edition)," National Fatherhood Initiative, as quoted in "The Extent of Fatherlessness," National Center for Fathering, Fathering in America Poll, 1999, downloaded from http://www.fathers.com/1999research/extent.html on June 12, 1999.

4 Arlen F. Saluter, "Martial Status and Living Arrangements: March 1994," U.S. Bureau of the Census, Current Population Report, pp. 28-484, as quoted in "The Extent of Fatherlessness," National Center for Fathering, downloaded from http://www.fathers.com/1999research/extent.html on June 12, 1999.

5 Statistical Abstract of the United States, 1996, 1997, U.S. Bureau of the Census, as quoted in "Contributors to Fatherlessness," National Center for Fathering, downloaded from http://www.fathers.com/1999research/contributor.html on June 12, 1999.

6 Arlen F. Saluter, "Martial Status and Living Arrangements: March 1995," Current Population Survey, PPL-52, update, as quoted in "Contributors to Fatherlessness," National Center for Fathering, Inc., downloaded from http://www.fathers.com/1999research/contributor.html on June 12, 1999.

7 "NFI Issues Report on Fatherhood and TV," Fatherhood Today, Spring 1999, National Fatherhood Initiative, Gaithersburg, Maryland.

8 U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, National Center for Health Statistics, Survey on Child Health, 1993, as quoted in "Consequences of Fatherlessness," National Center for Fathering, downloaded from http://www.fathers.com/1999research/consequences.html on June 12, 1999.

9 "What Does the Latest Research About Fathers Tell Us?" Child Trends press release summarizing the findings of Child Trends researchers in "What Policymakers Need to Know About Fathers," Policy & Practice (the Journal of the American Public Human Services Associations), December 1998, downloaded from http://www.childtrends.org/fathr199.htm on June 12, 1999.

10 "What We Have Learned: What the Community Says and National Statistics," The Institute for Responsible Fatherhood & Family Revitalization, downloaded from http://www.responsiblefatherhood.org/mainlearned.htm on June 12, 1999.

11 John O. G. Billy, Karin L. Brewster and William R. Grady, "Contextual Effects on the Sexual Behavior of Adolescent Women." Journal of Marriage and Family 56(1994): 381-404, as quoted in "Consequences of Fatherlessness," National Center for Fathering, downloaded from http://www.fathers.com/1999research/consequences.html on June 12, 1999.

12 Mark Clements, Parade magazine, February 2, 1997, as quoted in "Consequences of Fatherlessness," National Center for Fathering, downloaded from http://www.fathers.com/1999research/consequences.html on June 12, 1999.

13 Deborah J. Johnson, "Father Presence Matters: A Review of the Literature," 1997, National Center on Fathers and Families, Philadelphia, PA, downloaded from http://www.upenn.edu/gse/ncoff/fatherlink/org/ncoff/litrev/fpmlr.htm on June 12, 1999.

14 "What Does the Latest Research About Fathers Tell Us?"

15 Johnson.

16 "One in Four: America's Youngest Poor," National Center for Children in Poverty, 1996, as quoted in "Consequences of Fatherlessness," National Center for Fathering, downloaded from http://www.fathers.com/1999research/consequences.html on June 12, 1999.

17 "Survey on Child Health," National Center for Health Statistics, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, as quoted in "Consequences of Fatherlessness," National Center for Fathering, downloaded from http://www.fathers.com/1999research/consequences.html on June 12, 1999.

18 Johnson.

19 Warren R. Stanton, Tian P.S. Oci and Phil A. Silva, "Sociodemographic characteristics of Adolescent Smokers," The International Journal of the Addictions 7 (1994): 913-925, as quoted in "Consequences of Fatherlessness," National Center for Fathering, downloaded from http://www.fathers.com/1999research/consequences.html on June 12, 1999.

20 Barbara Dafoe Whitehead, "Facing the Challenges of Fragmented Families," The Philanthropy Roundtable, 1995, as quoted in "Consequences of Fatherlessness," National Center for Fathering, downloaded from http://www.fathers.com/1999research/consequences.html on June 12, 1999.

21 "Promoting the Benefits of Involved Dads," 1996, 1997, Center for Successful Fathering, downloaded from http://www.fathering.org on June 12, 1999.

22 1987 Fortune magazine poll, as quoted in "Demographic Trends in Fathering," National Center for Fathering, downloaded from http://www.fathers.com/1999research/trends.html on June 12, 1999.

23 Dallas Morning News, as quoted in "Demographic Trends in Fathering," National Center for Fathering, downloaded from http://www.fathers.com/1999research/trends.html on June 12, 1999.


# # #


Amy Ridenour is president of The National Center for Public Policy Research. Comments may be sent to [email protected]




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